Temperature controlled fan using PIC 16F877A

Temperature-controlled-fan-pic-16f877a-microcontroller-dc-motor
Temperature Controlled DC motor

You might have come across several applications where we need to control a specific device based on analog parameter. This Embedded system works in a similar concept where we are about to control the speed of a DC motor using based on the external temperature. The rise in temperature will result in increase in speed of the motor and vice versa. These type of Temperature controlled fan systems can generally be used to maintain temperature of a room or object automatically.

 DESIGN OF TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED FAN SYSTEM:

  • The temperature is measured by means of a temperature sensor LM35.
  • The output voltage of the sensor is fed to the A/D channel of the Microcontroller.
  • Based on the sensed temperature the speed of the motor is controlled using PWM .
  • Several temperature ranges was set in the code to vary the motor speed based on the level of temperature sensed.
  • The speed of the motor is controlled by using PWM.
  • The motor is driven using a driver IC l293D, See a brief explanation on its working and wiring here.

LM35:

LM35-pin-diagram-temperature-sensor
LM35 Pin Diagram

Lm 35 is used to sense the external temperature which is capable of sensing temperature ranges from -55 to 150 C. The output voltage is proportional to the temperature hence there is no need of trimmers to calibrate the reading. The output voltage of this sensor varies by 10mv per degree change in temperature.

CALIBRATION:

We are using a 10 bit ADC and Vcc as Vref to the ADC module of the Controller. So in order to determine the step size we have to divide the Vref by our resolution that is 2^10 ( 1024 ).

Step Size = 5 / 1024 = 4.83mV

We obtain a change of 10mV with each rise or fall in temperature from the sensor. And value in the ADC register will alter by two steps with each degree change in the sensor since two increments of step size i.e 4.833mV * 2 = 9.96mV which is approximately equal to 10mV. So in order to obtain the original value we have to divide the contents in the ADC register by 2

Real value = ADC value / 2

CODE:

This code was built using CCS compiler for PIC Microcontrollers.

#include <16F877A.h>
#device ADC=10                              //Setting ADC bits
#FUSES NOWDT               
#FUSES NOBROWNOUT          
#FUSES NOLVP                
#use delay(crystal=20000000)
#byte lcd=0x08
#byte TRIS_lcd=0x88
#bit rs=0x06.2
#bit en=0x06.3
#bit TRIS_rs=0x86.2
#bit TRIS_en=0x86.3
long int adc_value,real_value;        
int i;
char value[4];
unsigned char text[]="Temperature:";
void display(unsigned char a, int b);
void motor();
void main()
{
  TRIS_lcd=TRIS_rs=TRIS_en=0;
  display(0x38,0);
  display(0x01,0);
  display(0x0c,0);
    for(i=0;i<=12;i++)
    {
     display(text[i],1); 
    }
  setup_timer_2(T2_DIV_BY_16,255,1);    //Setting timers for PWM      
  SETUP_ADC_PORTS(AN0);                   //Setting ADC PORTS
  SET_ADC_CHANNEL(0);                       //Selecting Channel
  SETUP_ADC(ADC_CLOCK_INTERNAL);
     while(TRUE)
      {
        delay_us(20);
        adc_value=READ_ADC();            //Reading ADC value
        delay_us(10);
        real_value=adc_value/2;           //Obtaining real value
        motor();
        sprintf(value,"%lu",real_value);  //Changing int to char
        display(0x8c,0);
          for(i=0;i<=3;i++)
           {
             display(value[i],1);
           }   
      }
 }
void display(unsigned char a,int b)         //LCD sub routine
  {
    lcd=a;
    rs=b;
    en=1;
    delay_ms(10);
    en=0;
    delay_ms(10);
  }
 
void motor()
{
  if(real_value<10)
   {
   setup_ccp1(CCP_OFF);             
   }
  if(real_value>10)
   {
     setup_ccp1(CCP_PWM);
      if(real_value>=10&&real_value<=29)
      {
        set_pwm1_duty((int16)204);         //20% duty cycle PWM
      }
      else if(real_value>=30&&real_value<=69)
     {
       set_pwm1_duty((int16)510);         //50% duty cycle PWM 
      }
      else if(real_value>=70&&real_value<=99)
      {
         set_pwm1_duty((int16)715);      //70% duty cycle PWM
       }
      else if(real_value>=100&&real_value<=150)
       {
         set_pwm1_duty((int16)919);     //90% duty cycle PWM
       }
    }
 }

The above code uses built in functions in the CCS compiler to use the A/D and PWM feature in the Microcontroller. The received analog value is calibrated to display the temperature in the LCD. The “real_value” int value is converted to character using “sprintf” in order to display the temperature values.

The temperature ranges and duty cycle of the PWM is given using the subroutine “.motor”. So the microcontroller runs a check on the temperature every time and alters the speed of the motor based on it.

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Frank Donald

Frank Donald

Junior Network Engineer at Tata Communications
Frank Donald is an Electronics and Communication Engineer who loves building stuff in his free time. Video games, blogging and programming are the things he loves most
Frank Donald

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NIKITA
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NIKITA

Sir, Can I get this project source code idea in MPLAB IDE software.

megat
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megat

can the coding work on mplab software??

reshmi
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reshmi

set_pwm1_duty((int16)204) // 20% duty cycle
sir, please explain the format above (CCS compiler program for PIC )- what does the term int16 and 204 denotes

geneshgenesh96
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geneshgenesh96

sir, im using hitech compiler with mplab, can get the source code for this project using ldr replacing the teperature sensor.I need to include 2 ldrs, leds and a motor using pic16f877a. u can contact me through geneshgenesh96@gmail.com. tq in advance and hope to hear from u soon

Firdaus
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Firdaus

Hello sir, i have one question for u. can i replace sensor lm35 with another sensor witch like PIR sensor.
Sorry for my bad english

Anonymous
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Anonymous

Firstly, why we need 12V for L293D and i set up circuit it works but fan speed doesnt change anytime, what is the problem i didn’t get.

Anonymous
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Anonymous

The resistor in the circuit diagram is that potentiometer ??

Dila
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Dila

I compile this coding on MPLAB but it fail. Can you please tell me why?

Syafiqah
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Syafiqah

How to include the speed of fan in coding? I have tried many time. Can you help me sir.

solomon kassahun
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solomon kassahun

how the code will look like using mikroc compiler please show me if you can.